Wolves, Bears and Human Anti-Predator Adaptations

Geist, Valerius., The University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada (e-mail: kendulf@shaw.ca) Baskin, L., Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moscow, Russia Okhlopkov, I., Institute of kriolitozone, Yakutsk, Russia Spilenok, I., Kronotsky Nature Reserve, Elizovo, Russia Introduction The conservation of large carnivores and an increase in their numbers leads to increased confrontations with humans (Hererro 1985, 2002; McNay […]